Jojoba oil is the liquid produced in the seed of the Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) plant, a shrub native to southern Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The oil makes up about 50% of the jojoba seed by weight. The terms "jojoba oil" and "jojoba wax" are often used interchangeably because the wax visually appears to be a mobile oil.
The O'odham Native American tribe extracted the oil from jojoba seeds to treat wounds. The collection and processing of seed from natural stands marked the beginning of jojoba domestication in the early 1970s.
In 1943, US natural resources, including jojoba oil, were used during the war as additives in engine oil, gear oil and differential oil. Machine guns were lubricated and maintained with jojoba.
Unrefined jojoba oil appears as a clear golden liquid at room temperature with a slightly nutty odor. Refined jojoba oil is colorless and odorless. Jojoba oil is relatively stable compared to other vegetable oils, mainly because it contains few triglycerides.
|Freezing point||7-10.6 °C|
|Refractive index||1.5650 at 25 °C|
|Specific gravity||0.863 at 25 °C|
|Smoke point||195 °C|
|Flash point||295 °C|
|Viscosity||48 SUS at 99 °C
127 SUS at 37.8 °C
|Fatty acids||Carbon atoms: double bonds||Position(s) of double bond||Percentage (mole fraction)|
The fatty acid content of Jojoba oil can vary greatly depending on the soil and climate in which the plant grows, as well as when it is harvested and how the oil is processed. In general, it contains a high proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly 11-Eicosenoic acid (gondoic acid).
Derived from a plant that is slow-growing and difficult to cultivate, jojoba oil is mainly used for small-scale applications such as pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Overall, it is used as a substitute for whale oil and its derivatives such as cetyl alcohol. The ban on importing whale oil into the US in 1971 led to the discovery that jojoba oil is "in many respects superior to sperm whale oil for applications in cosmetics and other industries."
Jojoba oil is found as an additive in many cosmetic products. In particular, such products that usually contain jojoba are lotions and moisturizers, hair shampoos and conditioners. The pure oil itself can also be used on the skin and hair.
Like olestra, jojoba oil is edible but noncaloric and nondigestible, meaning the oil will pass through the intestines unchanged and can mimic steatorrhea—a health condition characterized by the inability to digest or absorb normal nutrients. fats. Thus, this indigestible oil is present in the stool, but does not indicate bowel disease. If the consumption of jojoba oil is stopped in a healthy person, the indigestible oil in the stool will disappear. Jojoba oil also contains about 12.1% of the fatty acid erucic acid which would appear to have toxic effects on the heart in high enough doses if it were digestible.
Although impractical, jojoba biodiesel has been investigated as a sustainable fuel that can serve as a substitute for petroleum diesel.
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